Madang languages - Madang languages

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Madang–Adelbert Range
Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationNortheast New Guinea and/or Trans–New Guinea
Madang languages.svg
Map: The Madang languages of New Guinea
  The Madang languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages

The Madang or Madang–Adelbert Range languages are a language family of Papua New Guinea. They were classified as a branch of Trans–New Guinea by Stephen Wurm, followed by Malcolm Ross. William A. Foley concurs that it is "highly likely" that the Madang languages are part of TNG, although the pronouns, the usual basis for classification in TNG, have been "replaced" in Madang. Timothy Usher finds that Madang is closest to the Upper Yuat River languages and other families to its west, but does not for now address whether this larger group forms part of the TNG family.[1]

The family is named after Madang Province and the Adelbert Range.


Sidney Herbert Ray identified the Rai Coast family in 1919. In 1951 these were linked with the Mabuso languages by Arthur Capell to create his Madang family. John Z'graggen (1971, 1975) expanded Madang to languages of the Adelbert Range and renamed the family Madang–Adelbert Range, and Wurm (1975)[3] adopted this as a branch of his Trans–New Guinea phylum. For the most part, Ross's (2005) Madang family includes the same languages as Z'graggen Madang–Adelbert Range, but the internal classification is different in several respects, such as the dissolution of the Brahman branch.

Internal classification

The languages are as follows:[1][4]

Yamben has been added as a probable primary branch of Madang by Andrew Pick (2019).[4]

The time depth of Madang is comparable to that of Austronesian or Indo-European.


Ross (2000) reconstructed the pronouns as follows:

sg pl
1 *ya *i[5]
2 *na *ni, *ta
3 *nu

These are not the common TNG pronouns. However, Ross postulates that the TNG dual suffixes *-le and *-t remain, and suggests that the TNG pronouns live on as Kalam verbal suffixes.


Madang family reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma:[6]

Family-wide innovations

  • pTNG *mbena ‘arm’ > proto-Madang *kambena (accretion of *ka-)
  • pTNG *mb(i,u)t(i,u)C ‘fingernail’ > proto-Madang *timbi(n,t) (metathesis)
  • pTNG *(n)ok ‘water’ replaced by proto-Madang *yaŋgu


Garuh language:

  • muki ‘brain’ < *muku
  • bi ‘guts’ < *simbi
  • hap ‘cloud’ < *samb(V)
  • balamu ‘firelight’ < *mbalaŋ
  • wani ‘name’ < *[w]ani ‘who?’
  • wus ‘wind, breeze’ < *kumbutu
  • kalam ‘moon’ < *kala(a,i)m
  • neg- ‘to watch’ < *nVŋg- ‘see, know’
  • ma ‘taro’ < *mV
  • ahi ‘sand’ < *sa(ŋg,k)asiŋ

Pay language:

  • in- ‘sleep’ < *kin(i,u)-
  • kawus ‘smoke’ < *kambu
  • tawu-na ‘ashes’ < *sambu
  • imun ‘hair’ < *sumu(n,t)
  • ano ‘who’ < *[w]ani


Kalam language (most closely related to the Rai Coast languages):

  • meg ‘teeth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • md-magi ‘heart’ < *mundu-maŋgV
  • mkem ‘cheek’ < *mVkVm ‘cheek, chin’
  • sb ‘excrement, guts’ < *simbi
  • muk ‘milk, sap, brain’ < *muku
  • yman ‘louse’ < *iman
  • yb ‘name’ < *imbi
  • kdl ‘root’ < *kindil
  • malaŋ ‘flame’ < *mbalaŋ
  • melk ‘(fire or day)light’ < *(m,mb)elak
  • kn- ‘to sleep, lie down’ < *kini(i,u)[m]-
  • kum- ‘die’ < *kumV-
  • md- < *mVna- ‘be, stay’
  • nŋ-, ng- ‘perceive, know, see, hear, etc’ < *nVŋg-
  • kawnan ‘shadow, spirit’ < *k(a,o)
  • nan, takn ‘moon’ < *takVn[V]
  • magi ‘round thing, egg, fruit, etc.’ < *maŋgV
  • ami ‘mother’ < *am(a,i,u)
  • b ‘man’ < *ambi
  • bapi, -ap ‘father’ < *mbapa, *ap
  • saŋ ‘women’s dancing song’ < *saŋ
  • ma- ‘negator’ < *ma-
  • an ‘who’ < *[w]ani

Rai Coast

Dumpu language:

  • man- ‘be, stay’ < *mVna-
  • mekh ‘teeth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • im ‘louse’ < *iman
  • munu ‘heart’ < *mundun ‘inner organs’
  • kum- ‘die’ < *kumV-
  • kono ‘shadow’ < *k(a,o)nan
  • kini- ‘sleep’ < *kin(i,u)[m]-
  • ra- ‘take’ < *(nd,t)a-
  • urau ‘long’ < *k(o,u)ti(mb,p)V
  • gra ‘dry’ < *(ŋg,k)atata

Southern Adelbert

Sirva language:

  • mun(zera) ‘be, stay’ < *mVna-
  • kaja ‘blood’ < *kenja
  • miku ‘brain’ < *muku
  • simbil ‘guts’ < *simbi
  • tipi ‘fingernail’ < *mb(i,)ut(i,u)C (metathesis)
  • iːma ‘louse’ < *iman
  • ibu ‘name’ < *imbi
  • kanumbu ‘wind’ < *kumbutu
  • mundu(ma) ‘nose’ < *mundu
  • kaːsi ‘sand’ < *sa(ŋg,k)asiŋ
  • apapara ‘butterfly’ < *apa(pa)ta
  • kumu- ‘die’ < *kumV-
  • ŋg- ‘see’ < *nVŋg-


The following selected reconstructions of Proto-Madang are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[7]

gloss Proto-Madang
head *gat(a,i)(m)
hair *imunu
ear *kaun(i)
eye *amu
nose *mutu(gu)
tooth *make
tongue *mele
leg *kani(n)
louse *[n]iman
bird *kVbara
egg *munaka
blood *ka(d,r)a; *kara
bone *kwaten
skin *ga(n,r)a
breast *amu(na)
tree *tari
woman *na-gali(k)
sky *ku(m,b)ut
sun *kamali
moon *kalam; *takun
water *yag(V)
fire *k(a,e)dap
stone *namanu
name *ibi; *wañim
eat *(n,ñ)a
one *kati(ŋ,g)a
two *arigita


  1. ^ a b c Madang
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Madang". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Ethnologue (15th edition)
  4. ^ a b Pick, Andrew (2019). "Yamben: A previously undocumented language of Madang" (PDF). 5th Workshop on the Languages of Papua. Universitas Negeri Papua, Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia.
  5. ^ actually i ~ si
  6. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  7. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). " - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.


  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  • Pawley, Ross, & Osmond, 2005. Papuan languages and the Trans New Guinea phylum. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 38–51.

Further reading

  • Ross, Malcolm. 2014. Proto-Madang.
  • Robert Forkel, Simon J Greenhill, Johann-Mattis List, & Tiago Tresoldi. (2019). lexibank/zgraggenmadang: Madang Comparative Wordlists (Version v3.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3537580

External links